Universe Timeline is a page dedicated to show the main events that have occurred in the universe to this day and beyond.
(Based on click here)
- 1 Timeline
- 1.1 0 Seconds
- 1.2 379,000 years
- 1.3 100 million years
- 1.4 200-300 million years
- 1.5 200 million years
- 1.6 300 million years
- 1.7 380 million years
- 1.8 400 million years
- 1.9 420 million years
- 1.10 470-500 million years
- 1.11 600 million years
- 1.12 630 million years
- 1.13 670 million years
- 1.14 700 million years
- 1.15 720 million years
- 1.16 740 million years
- 1.17 750 million years
- 1.18 770 million years
- 1.19 800 million years
- 1.20 870 million years
- 1.21 890 million years
- 1.22 900 million years
- 1.23 910 million years
- 1.24 1 billion years
- 1.25 1.1 billion years
- 1.26 1.13 billion years
- 1.27 1.3 billion years
- 1.28 1.31 billion years
- 1.29 1.39 billion years
- 1.30 1.4 billion years
- 1.31 1.44 billion years
- 1.32 1.5 billion years
- 1.33 1.8 billion years
- 1.34 2.0 billion years
- 1.35 2.02 billion years
- 1.36 2.2 billion years
- 1.37 2.4 billion years
- 1.38 2.41 billion years
- 1.39 2.5 billion years
- 1.40 3.0 billion years
- 1.41 3.3 billion years
- 1.42 3.5 billion years
- 1.43 3.8 billion years
- 1.44 4.0 billion years
- 1.45 4.1 billion years
- 1.46 4.5 billion years
- 1.47 5.0 billion years
- 1.48 5.1 billion years
- 1.49 5.3 billion years
- 1.50 5.8 billion years
- 1.51 5.9 billion years
- 1.52 6.0 billion years
- 1.53 6.3 billion years
- 1.54 6.5 billion year
- 1.55 6.9 billion years
- 1.56 7 billion years
- 1.57 7.4 billion years
- 1.58 7.64 billion years
- 1.59 7.8 billion years
- 1.60 7.98 billion years
- 1.61 8.08-8.58 billion years
- 1.62 8.2 billion years
- 1.63 8.5 billion years
- 1.64 8.8 billion years
- 1.65 9.0 billion years
- 1.66 9.13 billion years
- 1.67 9.2 billion years
- 1.68 9.2318 billion years
- 1.69 9.23283 billion years
- 1.70 9.257 billion years
- 1.71 9.266 billion years
- 1.72 9.271 billion years
- 1.73 9.3 billion years
- 1.74 9.396 billion years
- 1.75 9.4 billion years
- 1.76 9.5 billion years
- 1.77 9.6 billion years
- 1.78 9.7 billion years
- 1.79 9.8 billion years
- 1.80 9.861 billion years
- 1.81 9.88 billion years
- 1.82 9.9 billion years
- 1.83 9.95 billion years
- 1.84 9.96 billion years
- 1.85 10 billion years
- 1.86 10.2 billion years
- 1.87 10.4 billion years
- 1.88 10.6 billion year
- 1.89 10.8 billion years
- 1.90 11.2 billion years
- 1.91 11.8 billion years
- 1.92 12.1 billion years
- 1.93 12.7 billion years
- 1.94 12.8 billion years
- 1.95 13 billion years
- 1.96 13.0-13.4 billion years
- 1.97 13.076 billion years
- 1.98 13.175 billion years
- 1.99 13.2 billion years
- 1.100 13.5-13.6 billion years
- 1.101 13.787 billion years
- 1.102 13.791 billion years
- 1.103 13.795 billion years
- 1.104 13.799 billion years
- 2 Events from Today
- 2.1 62 years
- 2.2 10,000 years
- 2.3 25,000 years
- 2.4 36,000 years
- 2.5 50,000 years
- 2.6 100,000 years
- 2.7 300,000 years
- 2.8 500,000 years
- 2.9 1 million years
- 2.10 1.4 million years
- 2.11 2.7 million years
- 2.12 10 to 1,000 million years
- 2.13 50 million years
- 2.14 100 million years
- 2.15 180 million years
- 2.16 250 million years
- 2.17 500–600 million years
- 2.18 600 million years
- 2.19 1.5–1.6 billion years
- 2.20 2.3 billion years
- 2.21 2.8 billion years
- 2.22 3 billion years
- 2.23 3.3 billion years
- 2.24 3.6 billion years
- 2.25 4 billion years
- 2.26 5 billion years
- 2.27 7.5 billion years
- 2.28 7.59 billion years
- 2.29 7.9 billion years
- 2.30 8 billion years
- 2.31 22 billion years
- 2.32 50 billion years
- 2.33 100 billion years
- 2.34 150 billion years
- 2.35 450 billion years
- 2.36 800 billion years
- 2.37 1 trillion years
- 2.38 4 trillion years
- 2.39 12 trillion years
- 2.40 30 trillion years
- 2.41 100 trillion years
- 2.42 110–120 trillion years
- 2.43 1 quadrillion years
- 2.44 10–100 quintillion years
- 2.45 100 quintillion years
- 2.46 1030 years
- 2.47 3×1043 years
- 2.48 1065 years
- 2.49 5.8×1068 years
- 2.50 6×1099 years
- 2.51 1.7×10106 years
- 2.52 101100-32000 years
- 2.53 101500 years
- 2.54 101026 years
- 2.55 101050 years
- 2.56 101076 years
- 2.57 1010120 years
- 2.58 10101056 years
- Big Bang happens.
- The Cosmic Microwave Background forms.
100 million years
- The first small stars and quasars are formed.
200-300 million years
- The first stars begin to shine, the stars of Population III form, and some of Population II as well.
200 million years
- HD 140283, the "Methuselah" Star form, other old stars also like SMSS J031300.36-670839.3 also form.
300 million years
- First objects of large scale are formed, protogalaxies and quasars that we know are formed, stars already burn hydrogen and stably transform into helium are called the Main Sequence.
380 million years
- The quasar UDFj-39546284, one of the oldest quasars ever recorded is formed.
400 million years
- GN-z11, the oldest galaxy is formed.
420 million years
- The MACS0647-JD quasar is formed.
470-500 million years
- Abell 1835 IR1916, one of the oldest known galaxies forms, in Abell 1835 cluster.
600 million years
- The Dark Age has an end, the universe shines with life.
- Possible formation of the Milky Way.
- HD 140283 enters the Milky Way through a collision of galaxies.
- HE 1523-0901 is formed.
630 million years
- GRB 090423, the oldest known gamma-ray burst emerges, confirming the fact that supernovae existed a long time ago.
670 million years
- EGS-zs8-1, the first Starburst galaxy forms, proving that the interactions of galaxies and collisions between them are very common early in the universe.
700 million years
- Normal galaxies form, small galaxies begin to unite and form larger galaxies.
- UDFy-38135539, the first observed quasar in the reionization phase forms.
- The dwarf galaxy z8 GND 5296 forms.
- The galaxy or proto galaxy A1689-zD1 is formed.
720 million years
- Formation of globular clusters like NGC 6723, form in the Milky Way.
740 million years
- 47 Tucanae, the second brightest globular cluster of the Milky Way galaxy forms.
750 million years
- IOK-1, a galaxy emitting Lymam Alpha, forms. GN-108036, a galaxy 5 times smaller than the Milky Way today, yet form 100 times more stars forms.
770 million years
- ULAS J1120+0641, one of the most distant and known quasars is formed, one of the first galaxies showing a supermassive black hole, showing that the universe already had monsters very early.
800 million years
- SDSS J102915+172927 is formed. HE 0107-5240 forms.
- LAE J095950.99 + 021219.1 one of the most distant galaxies forms.
- Messier 2 is formed.
870 million years
- Messier 30 forms in the Milky Way.
890 million years
- SXDF-NB1006-2 forms.
900 million years
- BDF-3299 forms.
910 million years
- BDF-521 forms.
1 billion years
- HCM-6A, the first observed normal galaxy forms.
- SDSS J0100+2802 the hyperluminal quasar is formed.
- HE 1327-2326 is formed.
- Because the universe still has a small size, interactions of galaxies and collisions are very common, and increasingly larger, and there are also the first creation of galaxy clusters and superclusters.
1.1 billion years
- CFHQS 1641+3755, a quasar, forms.
- Messier 4 is formed.
- Among the clusters and stars, the PSR B1620-26 b, the oldest known planet, forms.
1.13 billion years
- Messier 12 is formed.
1.3 billion years
- WISE J224607.57-052635.0, the brightest galaxy in the universe forms.
- PSR J1719-1438 b, a planet made of diamond orbiting a pulsar forms.
1.31 billion years
- Messier 53 is formed.
1.39 billion years
- S5 0014+81 Central Black Hole, a hyper-luminous quasar, and also the largest black hole in the universe, forms.
1.4 billion years
- Cayrel's Star is formed.
- RD1, an ultra-distant galaxy forms.
1.44 billion years
- Messier 80, a cluster known to have many blue stragglers, forms.
1.5 billion years
- Messier 55 is formed.
1.8 billion years
- GRB 080916C, the most powerful gamma-ray burst that lasted 23 minutes happens.
- Baby Boom Galaxy forms.
- Terzan 5 forms as a dwarf galaxy and collides with the Milky Way, bringing the HD 140283 to the Milky Way.
2.0 billion years
- SN 1000+0216, a super bright supernova occurs, leaving behind a possible pulsar.
- Messier 15 is formed, a globular cluster that possibly has a black hole of intermediate mass in its center, and also has a planetary nebula, Pease 1.
2.02 billion years
- Messier 62, a globular cluster known to have many variable stars, forms.
2.2 billion years
- NGC 6752, the third brightest cluster of the Milky Way, forms.
2.4 billion years
- PKS 2000-330, a quasar, forms.
2.41 billion years
- Messier 10 is formed. Messier 3, the prototype for globular clusters, is formed.
2.5 billion years
- Omega Centauri, the largest globular cluster of the Milky Way, forms.
- Anser, a Population II Red Giant, forms.
3.0 billion years
- The Gliese 581 system forms, Gliese 581 c, the first observed ocean planet and Gliese 581 d, a Super-Earth, possibly the first discovered inhabiting planets, form.
3.3 billion years
- BX442, the galaxy with well defined spiral arms is formed.
3.5 billion years
- SN UDS10Wil occurs
3.8 billion years
- NGC 2808 is formed.
4.0 billion years
- 3C 9, a quasar, forms.
- Andromeda forms after a collision with another galaxy, its colliding course with the Milky Way begins.
- Barnard's Star is formed.
- GRB 991216, a burst of gamma rays, happens.
- Gliese 667Cc, a planet inhabited in Gliese 667C, forms.
4.1 billion years
- 16 Cygni Bb, the first gas giant orbiting alone a trinitarian system, with possible inhabitable moons forms.
4.5 billion years
- In Andromeda, very bright stars are beginning to appear.
5.0 billion years
- Stars of Population I, or equal to the Sun, begin to be born.As these stars are rich in metals, the planetary nebula encased in them has the ability to create many rocky planets, moons, asteroids, and comets.
5.1 billion years
- A galactic collision occurs with the Milky Way and in its spiral arms, many stars are born.
5.3 billion years
- 55 Cancri b, a Hot Jupiter, the first planet observed in the 55 Cancri A system is formed.
- The Kepler 11 system, the most compact solar system, and Kepler 11 c, an oceanic planet, are formed.
5.8 billion years
- 51 Pegasi b, the first planet orbiting a Main Sequence star, forms.
5.9 billion years
- The HD 176051 system forms.
6.0 billion years
- Many galaxies like NGC 4565 are stable, and elliptical galaxies arising from collisions like IC 1101 become more massive.
- In this period, huge objects begin to form, many galaxies are now organized in giant structures and are getting larger and larger.
6.3 billion years
- GRB 080319B, the burst of gamma rays further away seen with the naked eye, occurs. Terzan 7, a globular cluster rich in metals, forms in Sagittarius Dwarf.
6.5 billion year
- The HD 10180 system forms.
6.9 billion years
- Arcturus, an Orange Giant, forms.
7 billion years
- Polaris, the Polar Star, and most important celestial guide, forms.
7.4 billion years
- Aldebaran, a Red Giant, forms.
7.64 billion years
- The Mu Arae system is formedl, Mu Arae c is among Earth's first observed terrestrial planets.
7.8 billion years
7.98 billion years
- Mira A, "the marvelous" forms in a binary system.
- The Alpha Centauri A and Alpha Centauri B systems are formed, Alpha Centauri b is with them.
- GJ 1214b is formed.
8.08-8.58 billion years
- Capella System is formed.
8.2 billion years
- Tau Ceti System, are formed
8.5 billion years
- GRB 101225A, an explosion of gamma rays, lasting 28 minutes, happens.
8.8 billion years
- Messier 67, an open cluster, forms.
9.0 billion years
- Lalande 21185 is formed.
9.13 billion years
- Proxima Centauri is formed, and is captured by the Alpha Centauri system.
9.2 billion years
- A primordial Supernova, of our true mother star, is the possible origin of the Solar System.
9.2318 billion years
- The Sun forms. the planetary nebula of the beginning accretion to form the planets.
9.23283 billion years
9.257 billion years
- Now the Solar System has ten planets, the terrestrial planets form (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Theia and Mars)
- But because of accretion, many small planets form, and their orbits conflict.
- Early Bombardment Phase begins.
- Precambrian Superneon and Hadean begin on Earth, Pre-Noachian begins on Mars, Pre-Tolstojan begins on Mercury, A large planetoid collides with Mercury by throwing its crust into space, leaving only the mantle and core.
- Vega is formed.
- Galilean Moons are formed, and Europa and Titan also form.
- Early heavy bombardment begins on Earth.
9.266 billion years
- Theia collides with the Earth, and from the onset of the Moon's appearance.
- Boreas is ejected from the solar system.
- With the Moon's gravity, it helps the Earth and stabilizes the axis of rotation.
- Beginning of the Pre-Nectarian on the Moon.
9.271 billion years
- A large collision with an object the size of Pluto establishes the Martian dichotomy.
9.3 billion years
- The Sun becomes a Main Sequence star.
- Formation of the Oort Cloud and Kuiper Belt, and comets such as Halley's Comet and Comet Hale-Bopp begin to come into the Inner Solar System, and sometimes collide with the planets and Sun.
9.396 billion years
- Liquid water is brought to Earth through these comets and asteroids that go into the Inner Solar System, but the Earth's atmosphere at that time has too much Methane and Carbon Dioxide.
9.4 billion years
- Formation of the Kepler 438 b, one of the Earth-like planets, on the protoplanetary disk of her star.
9.5 billion years
- Massive meteors of meteors form Aitken basin at the South Pole of the Moon.
9.6 billion years
- Mars, Earth and Moon begin intense active volcanic, Form to Tharsis Bulge on Mars, and Lunar Mare on the Moon.
9.7 billion years
- Interactions between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn cause it to distant from Neptune, causing the Late Heavy Bombardment in the Inner Solar System, causing the Herschel Crater in Mimas, which gives it a crater resembling the Death Star. And meteorites cause Hellas, Planitia and Anseris Mons on Mars.
9.8 billion years
- HD 209458 b, the first planet discovered by the transit method is formed.
- The Messier 85 deforms with interaction with another galaxy, and shells of gas form around it.
- Andromeda and Triangulum are very close to each other, Andromeda gains many new stars, while Triangulum is distorted.
9.861 billion years
- Period of Great Impacts on the Moon, forming Mare Imbrium.
9.88 billion years
9.9 billion years
- Tolstoj crater forms on Mercury. Caloris Planitia forms on Mercury, making a "strange ground", increased seismic activity due to the volcanic activity on Mercury encompasses the planet.
9.95 billion years
- The Late Imbrium Period begins on the Moon.
9.96 billion years
- Formation of the Orientale Mare, the collision causes ripples on the surface of the Moon, causing three lines that look like three craters inside one another.
10 billion years
- At the height of Late Heavy Bombardment impacts on the Moon, large tides of lava cause deep depressions on the Moon, and the period of greatest volcanic activity occurs on the Moon.
- Archean eon begins on Earth, allowing the formation of continents and the Moon and Earth are very next to each other.
10.2 billion years
- Alba Mons forms on Mars, the largest volcano in terms of area.
10.4 billion years
- First fossils on Earth.
10.6 billion year
- Amazonian period begins on Mars.
- The climate of Mars gets denser, the groundwater on Mars freezes, and forms a layer freezes underneath the possible oceans in it.
- Eratosthenian period begins on the Moon, the only thing that can change the surface of the Moon are impacts.
10.8 billion years
- Beethoven Basin forms on Mercury, although it has many other similar craters on the Moon, it has no rings around it and is unique.
11.2 billion years
- Proterozoic begins on Earth, more complex life begins to emerge.
11.8 billion years
- After many collisions and interactions with other galaxies increase star births in Andromeda, births begin to fall.
- The formation of the Hoag's Object after a collision. Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in the Solar System, forms.
12.1 billion years
- Sagittarius Dwarf is captured by the Milky Way.
12.7 billion years
- Copernican Period begins on the Moon, defined by bright white craters.
12.8 billion years
- Kuiperian Era begins in Mercury (Modern Mercury), Mercury is desolate and influenced by space erosion and extreme solar winds.
- Interactions between Andromeda and their companion galaxies Messier 32 and Messier 110 cause deformation in their spiral arms.
- NGC 3077 starts interacting with Messier 81.
- Regulus A and Regulus B forms.
13 billion years
- Copernicus crater forms on the Moon.
13.0-13.4 billion years
- Epsilon Eridani forms, and in its protoplanetary disc the Epsilon Eridani b is formed.
13.076 billion years
13.175 billion years
- Hyades cluster is formed.
13.2 billion years
- Collision between galaxies spins create the Antennae Galaxies. Whirlpool Galaxy begins to collide with the NGC 5195, connecting the two galaxies.
- HD 189733b forms around HD 189733A and HD 189733 B.
13.5-13.6 billion years
13.787 billion years
- Antares A forms.
13.791 billion years
- Betelgeuse forms.
13.795 billion years
13.799 billion years
- Present Day. Today, the Solar System lives its golden period, Earth has life, all planets and the Sun are stable, and orbit around a quiet galaxy, the Milky Way, and it has nice and friendly neighbors. And Earth is going to Terraform Mars.
- But not everything is flowers, Andromeda is coming towards us, Many stars threaten to end life on Earth, Supernovas, Gamma Rays and other explosions can happen at any time, and scary Black Holes are showing that they are everywhere. And things will only get worse...
Events from Today
- A star system known as V Sagittae is expected to go nova.
- Wilkes Basin on Earth, will melt and raising the level of the oceans by 3-4 meters.
- Antares A will explode in a Supernova, being easily visible by day.
- The Northern Martian polar ice cap will melt.
- Ross 248 will pass 3,024 light-years from Earth, making him the nearest star to us, but 8,000 years later he leaves, making Alpha Centauri A the nearest star of us again.
- The Earth will inevitably enter a glacial period again. Niagara Falls will erode 32 miles and Lake Erie will no longer exist.
- Due to the movement of the stars in the sky resulting from the movement of the Milky Way, the Constellations will be unrecognizable.
- VY Canis Majoris should explode in a Hypernova.
- A supervolcano on Earth will have exploded.
- Thousands of years will have passed and the WR 104 should explode in a gamma-ray burst, eventually hitting Earth, but the star's axis has not yet been accurately measured.
- The Earth will be hit by a 1-kilometer meteor, assuming it is not avoidable.
1 million years
- The Earth will undergo another super-eruption of a supervolcano...
- Maximum age that the Betelgeuse can explode.
1.4 million years
2.7 million years
- Half orbital life of the Centaurs, these objects live little because many collisions with each other due to influence of the Jovian planets.
10 to 1,000 million years
50 million years
- Longest lifetime of Phobos.
100 million years
- The Earth will be hit by an asteroid equal to the one that killed the dinosaurs, with 10 km.
180 million years
- With the gradual decrease in the speed of rotation of the Earth, the days must have an hour more.
250 million years
- All continents on Earth must merge again by creating another Pangea.
500–600 million years
- It is estimated that an explosion of gamma rays or a supernova or hypernova will strike the Earth, causing a mass extinction.
600 million years
1.5–1.6 billion years
- The Sun increases its brightness, and the habitable zone moves, Mars warms, and the Earth warms even more.
2.3 billion years
- The core of the Earth freezes, the magnetic field disappears, the Earth is exposed, and probably will turn Mars 2.0
2.8 billion years
- The Earth's temperature now reaches 149°C. At this point, life, practically unicellular and isolated, was probably dead.
3 billion years
- Now the Moon will be so far away that its effect no longer helps the Earth, and as a consequence, the Earth's pole shift becomes chaotic.
3.3 billion years
- There is a 1% chance that Jupiter's gravity will affect Mercury's orbit, and cause it to collide with Venus, or Earth, or collide with the Sun, causing instability in the Inner Solar System.
3.5 billion years
A Runaway green house effect occurs on Earth making Earth more of a hellish version of Venus.
3.6 billion years
- Triton, the largest moon of Neptune, will disintegrate and form rings like those of Saturn. Neptune will now have the most visible rings, since Saturn will have lost his a long time.
4 billion years
- At this point, Andromeda and the Milky Way will collide creating the Milkdromeda, despite the collision, the Solar System will practically not be affected by this.
5 billion years
7.5 billion years
7.59 billion years
- The Earth and the Moon are most likely to be destroyed and fall into the Sun, just a little before the Sun reaches its maximum size as a red giant. Before that, the Moon will probably come very close to the Earth again, and will be destroyed by Earth, and its pieces will collide with Earth.
7.9 billion years
- The Sun reaches its maximum size, Mercury, Venus and most likely Earth, and possibly Mars will be destroyed.
8 billion years
- The Sun will become a white dwarf. At that point, if the Earth still exists, as well as the entire Solar System, its temperatures will fall very fast, because the Sun no longer produces the energy it produced.
22 billion years
- The Big Rip scenario will possibly happen due to observation of the speed of galaxy clusters, there is a 0.991% chance of it occurring.
50 billion years
- If the Earth and the Moon survive, the Sun will make them Tidal Locked, always showing the same face to it, but the Moon's orbit will cause the Earth to rotate again.
100 billion years
- The expansion of the Universe will cause all galaxies beyond the Local Group to disappear from our line of sight.
150 billion years
- The cosmic microwave background will be undetectable with our current technology.
450 billion years
- All the Local Group galaxies will merge into one.
800 billion years
- Time waited for all stars (Except Red Dwarfs) of the Milkdromeda to disappear, and Red Dwarfs become Blue Dwarfs.
1 trillion years
- The formation of stars will probably be over, and the gas that forms them as well.
- At that point, the universe has expanded so much that the Big Bang signal is no longer detectable with anything, but it will still be possible to study the velocity of expansion of the Universe behind hypervelocity stars.
4 trillion years
- Estimated time for Proxima Centauri to become a white dwarf.
12 trillion years
- Estimated time for stars like VB 10, the less massive star to exhaust its hydrogen and turn a white dwarf.
30 trillion years
- Estimated time for the white dwarf Sun to find another star, with the approach of the two bodies, whatever is left of the Solar System, will be expelled.
100 trillion years
- At that moment, all the gas that forms normal stars would end. That means the transition from Stelliferous Era to Degenerate Era. Without free hydrogen to form stars, those that remain will run out of hydrogen and die.
110–120 trillion years
- All the normal stars of the universe, even the one that lived the most, will have disappeared, the only things that will exist in the universe now, are White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, Black Holes and Brown Dwarfs.
1 quadrillion years
- Estimated time for one planet to find the other. At this point the Sun, which is now only 5K, will fall to absolute zero. Solar System ceases to exist.
10–100 quintillion years
100 quintillion years
- Estimated time until Earth and Mars collides with the Black Dwarf Sun, due to the decay of their orbit. That is if the Earth and Mars has not been destroyed by the Sun in the Red Giant phase.
- Estimated time for all non-ejected stars from galaxies to fall into the central supermassive black hole.
- Highest estimate for all protons to decay, Effectively killing planets and stars. If this happens, Black Holes will become the only celestial objects in the universe, Meaning the Black Hole Era will begin.
- if the proton has not decayed, Estimated time for rigid objects like planets, to rearrange their atoms, And become liquid smooth spheres.
- Estimated time for a Stellar Mass Black Hole to disappear due to Hawking Radiation process.
- Estimated time for a supermassive black hole such as TON 618 to disappear.
- Time for a black hole of 20 trillion solar masses to disappear. This time marks the end of the Black Hole Era, after that period, if the proton decays, we have the Dark Era, and all the objects of the universe that still exist, will inevitably disappear.
- If protons do not decay, This is the estimated amount of time that, Heavy black dwarfs (≥1.2 M☉) will explode into supernova. Dispelling the darkness of the degenerate era for a while.
- If the proton does not decay, this is the estimated time for all matter to turn into Iron-56, giving rise to Iron Stars.
- Estimated time for everything to exceed Planck's mass, and turn a black hole, if the proton does not decay, the Iron Stars will become black holes, and the neutron stars will also turn into black holes, giving a brief continuation to Black Hole Era.
- Estimated time for a Boltzmann's brain to appear in the via entropy.
- Highest estimated time for all Iron Stars to collapse into black hole, Which would evaporate instantaneously on these enormous timescales. assuming there was no proton decay.
- Estimated time for the universe to finally die in a cold death and without heat, even with False Vacuum. (Heat Death)
- Estimated time for random quantum fluctuations and quantum tunneling to create in isolation, a new Big Bangs, initiating a new universe, identical to our own.
Over an infinite amount of time, there could also a spontaneous entropy decrease by Poincaré recurrence theorem, or thermal fluctuations.